Bruce is a Melbourne based energy economist with 24 years’ experience in this field. His specialisms are in the economic regulation of networks and in the design of electricity markets and renewable energy policies. His clients have included energy regulators, government departments, industry and its associations, energy users and their associations, lenders, investment banks, other consultancies and various non-governmental organisations. He has worked mainly in Australia, Britain and South Africa but has undertaken assignments in numerous other countries. He has a Bachelor's and a Master's degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Cape Town and qualified as a Chartered Management Accountant in England. His PhD (Victoria University) was on the political economy of energy regulation in Australia.